Category Archives: Filmmaking

Indie Filmmaking Tip – Take it Outside

There’s a reason why so many low budget horror films take place in a house – All you need is one location, half a dozen college kids to kill off, and a serial killer determined to kill them.

Simple. Cheap.

Every additional location you add costs something – time to set up and tear down equipment, the sets and props, and it costs time and gas to get everyone to and from each location. Centering a story inside one location is a great way to keep it simple and cheap, but to add a little extra production value to your film without spending any additional money, consider taking it outside. A few exterior shots can help your film breathe.

Maybe show your characters pulling into the driveway of the house where they will be staying, or at the very least at the front door finding the key under the door mat or planter before entering the house. Maybe later in the script they can run outside only to find their car won’t start or they get chased back inside the house.

In my film, THE FINAL GOODBYE, the opening scene was filmed across the street from my house, followed by a reverse shot of him walking towards my house and then entering it. I also grabbed a few shots of him getting in his car so I would have more footage to use when editing. It didn’t cost us anything but a little bit of time to get these shots, but it added so much to the final film.

Taking it out side to shoot some exterior shots is a great way to help your story breathe without the added expense of moving everyone to a new location because all you did was step outside.

TIP: Don’t forget to grab some footage on the way to your location. For THE FINAL GOODBYE we grabbed some shots of the actor driving to the cemetery location.

On our way to the cemetery location there was a secluded stretch of road that looked amazing. The overcast skies, the wet road and dying trees would really help establish the hopelessness the character was feeling. I want to get a shot of our actor driving towards the camera then shoot the reverse or him driving away from the camera, but Murphy’s Law was working overtime and the typically quiet road had a lot of traffic, then it started to rain. After several failed attempts to get the shots I decided it was best to just scratch the idea and get to the actual location so we could film the story.

Always remember that the story is more important than B-Roll footage regardless of how amazing the shot may be. If it’s not an integral part of your story, you don’t need it. So don’t waste too much time and resources trying to get that amazing shot that has nothing to do with your story.

If you’re shooting a thriller about a serial killer who is stalking your characters, you don’t even have to move the actors outside – just take your camera outside and shoot the exterior of the house. Maybe have a character looking out the window and the camera dips behind a tree, bush or fence. That will raise the production value and the intensity because now you’re showing the killer’s POV (point of view) of watching the characters in the house, and all you did to raise the intensity (and the production value) was to take your camera outside.

Thank you for reading this post, I hope it inspired you to think outside the box and take it outside to raise the production value of your indie film. If you have any comments I’d love to hear from you and please don’t forget to like and share this post. It really helps. Thank you.

All the screengrabs used in this post were taken directly from my film THE FINAL GOODBYE – the very first short film I ever made. To watch it in it’s entirety, click the link below.

About the Author:photo of Author, and Filmmaker Kenn Crawford

Kenn Crawford is an author and filmmaker from Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Click HERE to watch his YouTube Videos

Say Hello to Jack Raven

What do you get when you cross a hard-nose detective, a sweet little girl, and demonic possession?

A Jack Raven Mystery
Casefile # 0327-17: Lucy Perkins

picture of Elliot HayotOn Sunday, March 26th, Elliott Hayot from Belgium contacted me about making short films. Elliott is a Public Relations student and he’ll be taking the selection tests to be an Air Traffic Controller; he also studied filmmaking in high school. He had a short story he wrote that he thought would make an interesting film. He asked if I would take a look at it and possibly consider shooting it some day.

I receive a few requests like that through email and on Facebook, and I’m always willing to help when I can, but his story, The Man with the Hat, really drew me in and I immediately saw its potential as a film.

We chatted for a bit to make sure we were both on the same page and then I went back to planning an upcoming film shoot, but Elliott’s story was stuck in my head and nagging at me to do something with it now… right now.

So I did.

Several hours later the first draft was finished, but the characters took me in a very different direction than what I had originally planned.  Great characters often take on a life of their own. The following day, with the help of my girlfriend to proofread and offer some insight, I worked and reworked it until I had what I thought was a solid draft.

Twenty-seven hours and one minute since Elliott first contacted me, A Jack Raven Mystery was sent back to him to make sure he liked and approved the screenplay.

He did.

It is now sitting in pre-production mode where the 1st AD and I will breakdown the script and figure out exactly what and who we will need to shoot it. Right now we are looking at late spring or early summer before we start rolling cameras. In the meantime, here’s a quick list of some of the speaking and non-speaking roles we will be auditioning for as well as needing some behind-the-scenes personnel such as hair & makeup, sound, lights, and production assistants.

  • Jack Raven – detective
  • Lucy Perkins – little girl
  • Gloria Shannon – detective
  • George Perkins – Lucy’s father
  • “Doc” – the coroner
  • Father Charles Raven – priest
  • Child Services worker
  • Mrs. Smith – the nanny
  • Background actors such as police, ambulance personnel, etc.

Please note that at this time these are non-paying roles. but depending on what type of funding we can get this may change, but until further notice it is on a volunteer only basis. We are not casting roles at this time – but when we do hold auditions, members of The Filmmaking Datatbase will be the first to be notified about auditions. If the roles are not filled through the database then we will hold an open casting call. If you’re not in the database please CLICK HERE and add your email address.

About the Author:photo of Author, and Filmmaker Kenn Crawford

Kenn Crawford is an author and filmmaker from Glace Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada.
Click HERE to watch his YouTube Videos


The Cinematography of… Unscheduled Visit

I love filmmaking – everything from writing the script and coming up with a shot list to decorating the set and shooting the scenes. Cinematography is just one of the many steps needed to get my ideas off the written page and onto the screen where it belongs. In this post I’ll breakdown the cinematography of my latest short film, UNSCHEDULED VISIT, and why I made the choices I did when it came to shooting this story.

Before I breakdown the film, I’ve included it here just in case you haven’t watched it yet. The breakdown will be written below the video.

The Cinematography and Subtext

You might have noticed two very distinct shooting styles, or shots, during the film. If you never really noticed then I did my job as a cinematographer and editor. For the average viewer who are not filmmakers looking for such things, the camera work and the editing should be completely transparent unless the filmmaker wants the viewer to notice.

Subtext is how I make you feel or think outside of what the characters are saying or doing. Think of subtext like this: If the text is what you see on the page, subtext is like reading between the lines – the invisible language, thoughts and feelings that exist in the context of the scene or story, but are never actually spoken. As a director I used blocking and camera position and/or movement to relay the subtext.

One of things I did was lock the camera down on a tripod for some of the shots to ensure there was no camera movement. This is apparently frowned upon by many modern filmmakers. It seems that constant camera movement, however subtle, is the new normal and beginning filmmakers are urged to take their camera off the tripod or else the footage will be dull and boring. I do not believe this to be true because I’m a firm believer in motivated camera movement.

Don’t move the camera simply because you’re supposed to move the camera. That to me is boring, and sometimes confusing if the movement doesn’t fit the scene. If you’re going to move the camera, do it with purpose. If your scene has to have camera movement to keep it from being dull, put the camera down and write a stronger scene. For UNSCHEDULED VISIT I had a specific reason when I did, and when I did not, move the camera, and it breaks down like this:

Lateral Movement

The brief establishing shot that leads us into the scene is a right-to-left pan to introduce us to Doctor Tyler and his patient, Kendra. On the surface it’s just a simple pan, no big deal, but beneath the surface, the direction of the lateral movement is adding subtext that is outside what we see and hear.

The opening music is upbeat, the character’s actions and dialog tells us that the doctor is a caring and friendly man, but the right-to-left lateral movement hits a subliminal chord that tells us something is going to change… and not for the better. What that change is we do not know, we’re only a few seconds into the film, but deep down we just know something is going to happen. Why is that?

Screenshot of Dr Tyler and Kendra

This is because in North America and  in many other countries we read from the left of the page to right, that is “normal” for us, so anything that moves right-to-left seems slightly off. Something in the back of our subconscious mind is telling us that something is not quite right when the lateral movement is right-to-left.

The scene itself is casual and friendly, and when the doctor finishes up and escorts Kendra out of the office the camera performs a brief right-to-left pan again as it follows them to the door, further reinforcing the feeling that something is not quite right. Then, while the doctor is standing in the doorway, Scott appears. Before he even has a chance to look at the doctor we just know something is wrong. There was nothing in the previous scene to suggest anything was amiss, but… we just know something is wrong.

The camera pans left-to-right to bring us back to where we started at the desk (there’s no way around that) but the look Scott gives the doctor tells us that something is about to happen, and that quick but intense look negates the slight left-to-right pan needed to bring us back to the doctor’s desk.

Now we are waiting to see what happens, and that feeling of expectancy was the subtext that was delivered through the use of deliberate camera movements.

Screenshot of Scott and Dr Tyler

The Subtext of Tripod vs. Handheld Shots

From there I interchanged between tripod and handheld shots, but there was a specific reason for when I used one or the other.

The doctor and Scott are rarely seen on the screen together, and I’m probably breaking a cardinal rule by not doing over-the-shoulder shots to show both actors at the same time. I did however use one wide shot of them together, but I picked a very specific angle and piece of dialog for that lone two-shot.

Screenshot of Dr. Tyler and Scott

Here’s how the tripod vs. handheld shots tickles our subconscious with subtext:

All the shots of the doctor are locked down on a tripod. His shots are steady because his character is rock solid – a pillar of the community and a well-liked doctor as witnessed by his interaction with Kendra. Scott’s large and intimidating stature was evident when he walked by the doctor. Shooting the two-shot on a tripod with Scott closer to the camera drives home the point that he’s a big man, but the subtext delivered tells a different story – the steady tripod shot tells us that despite their difference in size, the doctor is still rock solid and not intimidated by the bigger man.

The shots of Scott however are all handheld. The subtle movements of the camera suggest that unlike the doctor, he is in turmoil. He’s on shaky ground with his wife, with the good doctor, and with what has happened to him.

As the story progresses the shots I used for them are reversed.

When Scott finally comes to terms with what has happened to him I used a tripod instead of handheld. The subtext of the tripod shot suggests that only when his mind is calm can he deliver his final message and cross over. And because of his new state of mind he can leave behind the pregnancy test. On the surface it looks like the pregnancy test is left behind just to set up the next scene, but it goes much deeper than that. The subtext of that action is Scott telling the doctor that he knows just how much he has lost. This coming-to-terms scene is reinforced through the use of a steady tripod shot.

But as Scott starts to disappear in front of the doctor’s eyes, the doctor’s reality is suddenly thrown into turmoil – and this is reinforced by switching to handheld shots of the doctor for the remainder his scenes.

More Subtext through Composition

Another “rule” I purposefully broke was not having the doctor and Scott framed exactly the same size. Scott is always just slightly bigger to emphasize his turmoil. But, when the doctor’s reality is thrust into turmoil he is much larger on the screen, larger than even Scott was to place a little extra emphasis on his earth-shaking new reality.

Screenshot of Doctor Tyler

Meaghan’s scenes are steady tripod shots despite the fact that she too is in turmoil. This seems counter-productive but the steady shots add a subtext to her scenes – she has had some time to absorb the bad news, and her friend Jess is there to comfort her. That comfort equates to being calmer, so the camera is locked down and steady.

Screenshot of Meaghan and Jess

Last but not least is Nurse Delores. At first it makes sense that her shots should be handheld because Scott is in the frame with her, and she just witnessed the doctor talking to himself – we later learn that she can’t see Scott because he is a ghost who is only visible to the doctor – but the more I dissected that scene, the more I realized that she is confused but not necessarily in turmoil. So other than a slight tilt to ensure she is composed correctly when she enters the frame, the shots of her are fairly steady.

Screenshot of Nurse Delores

Wrapping it up

Motivated camera movement adds a whole new dimension to the story because it creates subtext. Most of what I wrote about you’ve probably never even noticed when you first watched the film – you weren’t supposed to – but now that you know what subtext and motivated camera movement is, watch the video again and you just might see the film in a whole new light.

Do you agree with my shooting style for this film?
Is there something you would have done differently?
Post your comments below and let me know.